Portugal, officially The Portuguese Republic, is a country in southern Europe, founded in 1143, occupying a total area of 92,212 km2. The mainland is located on the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, bordering Spain to the north and east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south. The Portuguese territory includes two autonomous regions: the archipelagos of Madeira and Azores, in the Atlantic Ocean. The archipelago of Madeira is formed by the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo, and the island groups of Desertas and Selvagens; the archipelago of the Azores consists of nine islands, Santa Maria, São Miguel, Terceira, Graciosa, São Jorge, Pico, Faial, Flores, and Corvo, and several islets.
The Portuguese climate is characterized by mild winters and pleasant summers, varying, however, from region to region. In the North precipitation is higher and temperatures are lower, but temperature range is widest in the interior.
To the south of the Tagus, the largest river in the Iberian Peninsula, one can feel the Mediterranean influence, with hot, long summers and short winters with little rainfall. Madeira has a Mediterranean climate with mild and pleasant temperatures all year round, while the Azores have a temperate maritime climate with abundant rainfall.
Portugal has a population of 10,6 million inhabitants (2011) and a population density of 115,4 inhabitants/km2, with higher concentrations along the coastal strip.
Following the establishment of the Republic, a decree of the National Constituent Assembly dated 19 June 1911 approved a new national flag.
The national flag is vertically divided into two colours - dark green and red - with the green on the hoist or flagstaff side. In the centre, superimposed on the colour boundary, is the national coat of arms rimmed in white, over the armillary sphere in yellow and highlighted in black.
The length of the flag is one-and-a-half times the height of the hoist. Two fifths of the total length are green, and the remaining three fifths are red. The emblem occupies half the height and is placed equidistant from the upper and lower borders.
National Anthem: A Portuguesa
Heróis do mar, nobre povo,
Nação valente, imortal,
Levantai hoje de novo
O esplendor de Portugal!
Entre as brumas da memória,
Ó Pátria, sente-se a voz
Dos teus egrégios avós,
Que há-de guiar-te à vitória!
Às armas, às armas!
Sobre a terra, sobre o mar,
Às armas, às armas!
Pela Pátria lutar
Contra os canhões marchar, marchar!